What is mineral plaster and how it is used

Mineral plaster is a common and adaptable building material that has a built-in natural beauty and longevity. For centuries, people have utilized it for building and remodeling since it is mainly composed of natural mineral components like sand, cement, and lime. Because of its all-natural composition, it is a sustainable building method favorite and an environmentally beneficial choice.

The breathability of mineral plaster is one of its main benefits. It permits moisture to pass through, lowering the possibility of mold and dampness, in contrast to synthetic plasters. This makes it especially appropriate for homes in humid climates or older buildings. Mineral plaster also offers superior insulation and fire resistance, making living spaces safer and more energy-efficient.

The look of walls and ceilings can be improved by applying mineral plaster, which gives them a textured, rustic appearance that is highly desired in both traditional and modern interior designs. Brick, stone, and concrete are just a few of the surfaces it can be applied to, making it a flexible option for both indoor and outdoor use. Mineral plaster is a useful and visually appealing option for adding character to new construction as well as for restoring older structures.

What is Mineral Plaster? How is Mineral Plaster Used?
Mineral plaster is a type of finish made from natural minerals like limestone and marble. It is known for its durability, breathability, and eco-friendliness. Mineral plaster is applied to walls and ceilings to create a smooth, decorative surface. It"s often used in both interior and exterior spaces for its aesthetic appeal and protective qualities.

Mineral plaster – what is it

Man has been using mineral plastering mixtures since the time of ancient Rome. Originally, they contained clay and volcanic ash. Several centuries later, cement was added to the plaster to strengthen it. The addition of quartz sand, Portland cement, and other contemporary modifiers to the mineral mixture in the 1980s led to an even greater expansion in its composition.

These components of the complex aid in the chemical reaction that results in the formation of a solid stone, or plaster layer, which firmly adheres to the base and shields it from the elements, water, and cold. Because it is composed of natural, eco-friendly ingredients, mineral plaster is derived from natural mineral raw materials, hence its name.

Because of the characteristics of polymerization, all of these building mixtures are created in a dry state because they quickly arise when exposed to moisture. They are applied using conventional building tools or in a mechanized manner because they are divorced. A robust, vapor-permeable, non-combustible layer with excellent heat-insulating and soundproofing qualities is created after drying.

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Composition and characteristics

Mineral plasters ranging from simple two- to three-component mixtures to more intricate multicomponent ones are available for purchase. Cement is typically regarded as the primary component in mixtures, with the remaining ingredients acting as auxiliary. The basic components are cement, sand, clay, lime, gypsum, asbestos, talc, and kaolin. In addition, a mineral filler such as anthracite, quartz, marble, granite, etc., is found in many plasters. The filler is in charge of giving the mixture structure or weight relief.

To mineral plaster, additional ingredients are:

  • plasticizers that facilitate the laying of the mixture;
  • modifiers – biocides, antipyrene, frost -resistant additives;
  • additives – substances to increase moisture resistance;
  • Pygmans for painting mass.

While mineral plaster intended for exterior application differs slightly from that intended for interior use, these variations are generally negligible. The material exhibits exceptional strength and resistance to crumbling. The coating breathes after drying, allowing the air to pass through while keeping moisture out, maintaining the room’s microclimate.

Since mineral plaster has a moderate degree of elasticity, it can withstand more than just tension and vibration. In this sense, you shouldn’t decorate buildings in seismic zones close to the railroad or use funds with such a composition until the buildings have completely shrunk.

The following are the typical technical attributes of the mineral compositions:

  • Dice density-1.4-1.5 t/cube. m;
  • possible thickness of the layer without the use of reinforcement – 3 cm;
  • preservation of plasticity after breeding the solution-1-2 hours (depending on additional substances in the composition);
  • water consumption per pack of mixture weighing 25 kg-4.8-5.5 l;
  • high vapor permeability (equivalent thickness of the resistance of water steam diffusion of SD – less than 0.1 m);
  • The optimum temperature for grasping is within +5 … +25 degrees;
  • layer drying time-16-24 hours;
  • Tixotropic, lack of fluxes on the processed surface.

The service life of the plaster

Although this duration can occasionally be significantly shortened, the minimum duration of the mineral plaster service with the modifiers added to its composition is ten years. For this reason, when walls vibrate and shrink, the plaster starts to crack because it is not elastic enough. Even with standard door claps, some mixtures have a mesh of microcracks covering them; however, the damaged area is easily repaired.

Types of mineral plaster

Plaster mixtures are classified according to the size of the filler grain, filling component type and appearance, and both. Furthermore, they can all be divided into three categories: ordinary, special, and decorative. Mineral plasters are also separated into universal compositions, exterior use, and interior use categories.

The size of the filler

The following are the sizes of the plaster’s filler grains:

  1. Thin -grained. The size of the particles does not exceed 0.5 mm, so the filler is more like flour.
  2. Small -factured. The size of the fraction is 0.5-1 mm, the materials are widely used for decoration of the premises. The surface will have barely noticeable relief, which is ideal for residential and public buildings.
  3. Middle Power Phactus. The filler faction is 1.1-3 mm. Such mixtures are considered universal, they are suitable for external and internal work. In the premises, the mid -player plasters are most often applied to the walls in halls, corridors, rooms with high humidity.
  4. Coarse -grained. Are considered facade because they are usually used for external decoration of houses and structures.
  5. Rough -focusing. Also used in facade repairs. Give a pronounced relief surface. Suitable even for cladding multi -storey buildings.

The technological process is significantly impacted by the fraction of the fraction. The coating layer will become thicker the larger the filler granules. The plaster’s packaging always specifies the precise fractional size.

Type of filler

Plaster is filled with filling additives to give it different qualities, make it more aesthetically pleasing, and enhance its technical aspects. The most widely used fillers for mineral plasters are as follows:

  • Color glass in the form of balls – provides the walls with an unusual and very spectacular look;
  • Color clay – used for internal work, gives the surface smoothness, “silk” appearance;
  • Crushed quartz – is a larger quartz sand larger than usual, which gives interesting roughness and strengthens the composition;
  • Anthracite (coal production) is used infrequently, allows you to make dark plaster saturated in color;
  • mica – suitable for external and internal work, the surface after its introduction will shine under the rays of the sun, recalling pieces of glass;
  • Marble baby – is used in expensive stucco such as Venetian, increases the aesthetic properties of the material;
  • Ceramic granules – increase the strength of the plaster, give a beautiful texture.

Texture and appearance

Textured (decorative) plaster is typically applied in a dry form and is based on minerals. It is applied to walls and other surfaces using specialized equipment after breeding, which produces a particular decorative effect. Plasters with these effects are typically available for purchase:

  1. "Bark beetle". This is a pebble mixture with medium or large granules, which are contained in large numbers. After applying and rubbing with a construction grater in one direction, grooves are formed on the surface, resembling traces of the vital functions.
  2. "Lamb", or "rune". Small stone particles allow you to give a layer of waves like a ram. This effect is achieved by circular movements of the grater or half.
  3. "Fur coat". To obtain this type of finish, plaster with fine -fractional marble or quartz is used. After leveling the masses on the wall, a grater is applied to it, sharply pulled out, resulting in sharp tubercles resembling wet fur animals. Most often, this type of application is used in facade work.
  4. "Venetian". This plaster imitates a natural marble coating. The Venetian mixture contains small marble crumbs or flour, as well as colored clay. It is applied in special equipment on 5-8 or more layers, producing short strokes in different directions with a special rounded cell. After grinding the last layer, its ironing is done – the processing of a metal grater. At the end, the finish is covered with wax.
  5. "Travertino". Mineral plaster can be like a natural stone travertin, which has a unique ribbed surface. Apply the composition in 2 layers, and the second is applied in the form of chaotic strokes. After the formation of irregularities, the surface is slightly smoothed to make some areas more smooth.
  6. "Wet silk". To obtain such an effect, plaster with cellulose fibers, cotton, polyester or silk in the composition will be required. Perform two layers of material by randomly applying strokes, which can be long or short. They also use the technique of performing patterns using special curly rollers, as a result of which the coating will resemble textile.

Advantages and disadvantages of plaster

Professionals and users alike value mineral plastering mixtures because of their clear benefits:

  • high degree of adhesion with all building materials (concrete, brick, GKL, gas blocks, etc. D.);
  • resistance to ultraviolet radiation, temperature changes, frost, heat, precipitation;
  • small thermal conductivity, excellent thermal insulation properties;
  • great mechanical strength, wear resistance, long -term preservation of the integrity of the coating;
  • vapor permeability – the ability to get rid of accumulating moisture, the absence of fogging walls, a decrease in the risk of breeding the fungus and mold;
  • fire safety, non -combustibility, the ability to use as a fire -retardant layer;
  • Simplicity of care – plaster can be washed with water, detergents, vacuum, wipe, clean with brushes;
  • increased level of acidity, which prevents the reproduction of microbes, fungus;
  • environmental friendliness, lack of unpleasant odor and excreted toxins;
  • accessibility in value (with the exception of marble plasters);
  • A wide variety of options, the presence of many types of plaster with a decorative effect.

There are also available minuses of mineral mixtures. The solution may lose strength and some other beneficial qualities if the ratios of cement to other mineral additives are not followed, or if the plaster is improperly diluted with water. Over time, this type of cladding may crack or crush. Because decorative plaster finishing tasks are only performed by hand, they are regarded as labor-intensive and time-consuming, particularly when dealing with large surfaces.

Because the elasticity of mineral mixtures is low, the plastered layer may crack when buildings shrink and vibrate. Repairs will need to be completed more quickly because mineral compositions have a shorter service life than silicone, silicate, or acrylic plaster. Furthermore, mineral mixtures must be tinted on their own as they are rarely painted.

The final shade may seem unattractive if the composition’s constituents are gray in color. And the final drawback: it’s best to practice on a black surface before plastering a home or apartment. The final solution freezes easily, has a short service life, and will be challenging for a novice to use.

The use of mineral plaster

Mineral mixtures can be used for a wide range of tasks both inside and outside of buildings, including decorative decoration. You can always select the best composition for a given kind of work; in cases where cement plasters aren’t appropriate, gypsum or lime solutions will work well.

Primary black work

The primary material types that can be used to align walls, facades, ceilings, and floors are mineral compositions. For example, they cannot be replaced when pouring the screed by any polymer plaster. Other compounds must only be used when processing smooth metal and plastic, and even then, only after the surface has been initially prepared.

Additionally, when installing thermal insulation, mineral-based plasters enable damage prevention for leaf heaters. To get rid of rust and damage, pipes are also treated with cement and asbestos solutions. You must consider the composition’s clutch strength with the substrate material and the allowable plaster layer thickness when selecting a composition that is truly appropriate for draft work. The product’s package lists each of these parameters.

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Internal work

Usually, plasters with fine bases, such as gypsum and lime, are used to plaster the premises. They control humidity and do not obstruct the outflow of moisture, so they create the ideal microclimate in the space. Only in environments where the air’s inherent humidity is continuously raised can they quickly degrade and absorb extra fluid. Installing a strong and high-quality hood and placing moisture insulation in the areas that come into direct contact with water are two ways to address this issue.

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External work

The plaster is frequently subjected to the damaging effects of the elements—rain, snow, wind, UV rays, and temperature changes—on the street. Therefore, dependable mixtures based on cement and unique modifiers are selected for facade and other external works. They can be used on fences, retaining walls, arbors, verandas, balconies, and the exterior walls of homes.

Certain lightweight mineral plasters can be used alone or in conjunction with sheet insulation to aid in wall insulation. Particular waterproofing mineral compositions are used to finish and safeguard the base and foundation of the house. Mixtures with improved frost resistance and the capacity to endure numerous freezing cycles and defrost are preferred in areas with extreme weather.

Decorative finish work

Special finish mineral plasters based on lime, cement, sand, and gypsum but containing special fillers are used to protect and decorate wall cladding. These are the so-called textured or decorative structural mixtures, which are applied in a particular way to achieve the desired result. For instance, rub the mixture in a single direction with a grater to get the bark beetle texture. Because mineral plaster is treated differently during the drying process to create the aged look, it cracks (a phenomenon known as the "Krakelyur" effect).

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Material consumption

The packaging usually indicates the approximate consumption of the material. The layer thickness, the technology and tools used, the plasterer’s skill level, the kind of plaster and its granularity, and the degree of base evenness will all affect the precise consumption. Consumption can cause even the same mixture, produced by different manufacturers, to differ slightly. For every square meter of wall space, 1-2.5 kg of plaster mass with a layer thickness of roughly 3 mm is typically applied.

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For the purpose of creating long-lasting and breathable surfaces on walls and ceilings, mineral plaster is a natural, environmentally friendly substance that is derived from minerals like lime, cement, and sand. It is a popular option for both interior and exterior applications because of its versatility in allowing for a variety of textures and finishes. By controlling humidity and halting the growth of mold, mineral plaster improves a room’s aesthetic appeal while also promoting indoor health. Its application is simple: first, mix the plaster with water, and then use a trowel to apply it to the prepared surface.

The technique of applying plaster

The information can be used in a variety of ways. A feature of the work will also stem from the plaster layer’s necessary effect and purpose. Plastering should be started after the building has stopped shrinking because otherwise the coating may crack.

Preparation of walls

Smoothing off the irregularities before applying certain mineral compositions is practically not necessary because they can partially align the base. Walls and ceilings are aligned using black compositions. Venetian plaster is applied in thin layers, and the walls must be perfectly smooth before facing.

The following is the process that will be followed to prepare the foundation:

  • remove the old, poorly retaining finish using a metal brush;
  • Deep cracks are embroidered, close, pits are also covered with a cement mixture;
  • They remove metal elements or cover them with protective compounds so that in the future, rust does not see through the plaster;
  • Fat spots, fuel oil, traces of oils and oil products are taped with a solvent;
  • soot is washed with a 3%solution of hydrochloric acid and washed with water;
  • They treat the walls with a remedy for mold, primer them;
  • If you have to apply a thick plaster layer, reinforce the reinforcing mesh;
  • To align the walls, beacons are set, and for decorative decoration, the boundaries of the pattern are marked with masking tape;
  • Cuts are applied to too smooth bases, and then primed.


Working with mineral mixtures may call for a variety of tools; the precise list will depend on the method and objective of surface processing. Usually, a small spatula is used to gather the plaster mass, which is then spread out using a wide spatula or trowel. Finally, a grater is used to level the surface. Furthermore, masters employ:

  • level;
  • kelma;
  • rollers;
  • buckets;
  • brushes.

Consumables include maular tape, rags, sponges, guides (lighthouses), and corner profiles. A construction mixer and a container are set up ahead of time for breeding plaster water. A metal, plastic, polyurethane, or foam grater is required in order to apply decorative plaster.

The process of applying the solution

Depending on the particular technique, one or more layers may be used for the finish. A thin layer of ornamental mineral plaster, no larger than the fraction, is applied during interior construction. A 15-degree angle is maintained between the kelm, spatula, and trowel and the wall. The tool is moved in an arch or straight line. The following are some instances of the applied techniques:

  • applying a layer of plaster, leveling the rule from the corner to the corner;
  • the imposition of a new layer of plaster on the still low previous layer;
  • applying stucco stucco in different directions with a spatula;
  • transferring the mixture with a roller or smoothing pre -applied "islands" and t. D.

Usually, fill up to 1.5 square meters of a small portion of the surface, and then start working with the following. Mineral plasters freeze quickly, so try to work quickly. If a break is needed, masking tape is applied to the plastered zone’s edge, which is then removed and work continues.

Lightks are placed first when decorating walls with black plasters, and the space between them is filled with two to three layers of solution. After the previous layer has dried, the next is applied. Using a spatula held at a 15-degree angle, the coarse layer is leveled first. A grater is then used to wipe the remaining layers. Applying perforated corners straight onto the new solution, pressing firmly, and leveling them forms the corners.

The process for plastering the facades with mineral mixtures is as follows:

  • The first layer up to 5 mm thick (spray) is thrown onto the wall with a bucket, a spatula, leveled by the rule;
  • After a day, a second layer is performed with a thickness of up to 8 mm (soil), grind, leave for another day;
  • Make a third layer of 2-5 mm thick (covered), which can be made using decorative plaster.

A variety of plasters from both domestic and foreign manufacturers are available for purchase. Superior mineral blends enable the following businesses:

  • "Volma";
  • "Baumit";
  • "Technonikol";
  • "Cerezite";
  • "Unis";
  • "Paparol".

Any brand’s assortment contains a variety of materials that vary from one another in terms of their primary composition, the existence of modifiers and polymer additives, color, fraction size, and other characteristics. The cost is largely influenced by the plaster’s particular qualities and features as well as the manufacturer. Rough mixtures typically retail for 200–500 rubles per 25 kg, while decorative mixtures are more expensive, costing 300–600 rubles and up.

Made from natural minerals like cement or lime, mineral plaster is a flexible and long-lasting finishing material. It is well-known for being breathable, which makes it perfect for both interior and external walls by reducing the growth of mold and moisture accumulation. Because of its natural makeup, it is also an environmentally friendly choice that adheres to sustainable building techniques.

The simplicity of application of mineral plaster is one of its main advantages. Both skilled builders and do-it-yourselfers can use it because it can be applied by hand or with a machine. There are many different textures and colors that can be added to the plaster, providing endless aesthetic options. Its adaptability is further increased by the fact that it sticks well to a variety of substrates, including concrete, stone, and brick.

Mineral plaster is comparatively easy to maintain. Its ability to withstand chipping and cracking guarantees a long-lasting finish. In the event that repairs are required, they can be carried out without affecting the surface’s overall appearance. Its low maintenance requirements make it more appealing, particularly in locations with heavy traffic or exposure to inclement weather.

To sum up, mineral plaster is a useful and appealing option for anyone seeking to create a finish that is long-lasting, breathable, and eco-friendly. It is a well-liked choice for many building and remodeling projects due to its simplicity of application, adaptability, and low maintenance needs. Mineral plaster provides a dependable, long-lasting solution whether it is used indoors or outdoors.

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Daria Yakovlev

Interior designer, author of online color design courses. I will help you create a harmonious interior using color.

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