Bitumen -based sealants: varieties, properties and application

Because of its remarkable sealing and waterproofing qualities, bitumen-based sealants are a crucial part of construction and maintenance projects. Because bitumen is a viscous mixture of hydrocarbons, it gives these sealants special properties that make them suitable for a range of applications. Selecting the appropriate product for a given set of requirements can be made easier by being aware of the various types and characteristics of bitumen-based sealants.

Strong adherence to a variety of materials, such as metal, asphalt, and concrete, is one of the main benefits of bitumen-based sealants. This makes them especially helpful for waterproofing foundations, roofing, and building roads. In addition to having a high level of weather resistance, the sealants guarantee long-lasting performance even in challenging circumstances. They are a resilient option for both industrial and residential projects because they can tolerate temperature changes, UV rays, and chemical exposure.

Bitumen-based sealants come in a variety of forms, each intended for a particular use. For example, because they are easy to apply and can get into cracks and crevices, liquid bitumen sealants are frequently used for protective coatings and roof repairs. However, bitumen tape is frequently used to seal seams and joints, offering a rapid and effective fix for on-the-spot issues. Polymer-modified bitumen sealants also have increased flexibility and elasticity, which makes them perfect for dynamic surfaces that move.

For bitumen-based sealants to adhere and perform at their best, the surface must be properly prepared before application. Dust, oil, and other impurities should be removed from surfaces, and they should be dry and clean. Depending on the type of sealant, different steps must be taken during application; some can be applied cold, while others need to be heated before use. The best results can be obtained by using the right tools and adhering to the manufacturer’s instructions.

All things considered, bitumen-based sealants are dependable and adaptable materials that are essential for shielding buildings from environmental deterioration and water damage. You can prolong the life of your projects and preserve their integrity over time by selecting the proper sealant type and applying it correctly. Bitumen-based sealants provide a tried-and-true method for efficient sealing and waterproofing, whether you’re working on a small-scale home repair or a major construction project.

Variety Properties and Application
Bituminous Roofing Sealant Excellent waterproofing for roofs, adheres well to various surfaces, ideal for sealing leaks and cracks.
Bituminous Road Sealant Durable and weather-resistant, used for filling cracks in asphalt roads and pavements, prevents further damage from water and traffic.
Bituminous Pipe Sealant Effective for coating and protecting pipes, prevents corrosion, suitable for underground and above-ground pipelines.
Bituminous Flashing Sealant Flexible and long-lasting, used for sealing joints and seams in flashing, ensures water-tightness around chimneys, vents, and other roof penetrations.

The main properties of bitumen sealants

The individual pointed out that bitumen had good qualities and was useful for domestic purposes a few tens of thousands of years ago; Sumerian builders, for instance, used it to seal buildings. Previously, using it was challenging; however, modern advancements in polymer additives have significantly eased this task. The production of bitumen sealants, which include bitumen (a tarry derivative oil) and a variety of improvers, modifiers, and plasticizers, started at the end of the 20th century.

Modern sealants can now take pride in the following attributes because bitumen’s viscosity has changed along with its other properties due to the influence of polymers:

  • excellent adhesion to all building materials;
  • frost resistance, bio resistance;
  • the ability to withstand heating and temperature changes;
  • strength and elasticity;
  • protection of metals from corrosion;
  • lack of cracks after drying;
  • resistance to UV rays;
  • lack of harmful components, security for humans.

Owing to these characteristics, sealants are frequently utilized on building sites for a wide range of repairs at different phases of the project.

Bitumen-based sealants are incredibly adaptable and long-lasting materials that are frequently used to waterproof and seal surfaces. They are available in different forms, such as liquid, tape, and mastic, and each is appropriate for a particular use, like pavements, roofing, and foundations. These sealants are perfect for both residential and commercial projects because of their outstanding flexibility, adhesion, and weather resistance. Bitumen-based sealants are very easy to use and very effective at providing long-lasting protection against moisture, which helps to preserve the longevity and structural integrity of buildings.

Types of bituminous sealants in composition

The earliest sealants were made of rubber and bitumen. Many species are now enhanced with various additives. Sealants can be divided into three primary categories based on the different components they contain. The only thing that stays constant is the bitumen’s presence, which is crucial and provides the means with strong sealing properties.

Bitumen-mineral sealants of high strength

Mineral additives such as asbestos, cement, ash, and dolomite are added to the composition of these sealants. They go by the name "bitumen mastic" due to their thick consistency. Bitumen’s internal voids are filled with mineral fibers, which strengthen the material. Sealants are appropriate for use outdoors and can be applied in both cold and hot conditions (the latter requiring warming to between +150 and +300 degrees).

Bitumen-polymer heat-resistant sealants

Additives include thermoplasts, reactoplasts, divine, styrene, and other synthetic polymers as well as fiber-fiber and adhesive additives. They enable the sealant to dry more quickly, become heat-resistant, resist melting in the sun, and stop flowing when heated. Since road surfaces are frequently exposed to the sun’s intense rays, cracks on them typically close over these sealants. The primary traits of this group’s compositions are:

  • the operating temperature range during operation is from -20 to +190 degrees;
  • high elasticity;
  • the ability to withstand the influence of UV radiation within 1000 hours with a deterioration in strength by only 15%;
  • lack of shrinkage;
  • wear resistance, inertness in relation to many aggressive chemicals;
  • Excellent clutch with stone, concrete, metal.

Bituman-teddy sealants: good frost resistance

Artificial rubber, a component of bitumen-based rubber sealants, gives the mixture great elasticity and the resistance to crumbling in the winter. The sealant maintains its extension throughout the service life, preventing the seam from breaking under any circumstances (-60 to +90 degrees). The compositions do not flow from a vertical base because of their thickness, but they do dry out more quickly than the funds from the previous group.

Such sealants not only retain their vibrogenempphic characteristics at low temperatures, but they also have the following advantages:

  • lack of need for heating before application;
  • the ability to fasten even complex and heterogeneous materials, for example, plastic with metal, glass with stone or wood;
  • low consumption, efficiency;
  • excellent clutch with dry and wet surfaces;
  • resistance to atmospheric factors.

Rubber sealants are frequently referred to as unstable due to their tixotropic structure, which allows them to thicken at rest (but only after they are completely dry) and dilute upon mechanical exposure.

Bitumen sealants with a metal pigment

A metal filler may be present in any of the sealants on this list. Typically, they are bought for the matching color roof in order to prevent the appearance of noticeable stripes or spots. The bitumen composition of aluminum pigments not only gives the sealant a lovely shade of "metallic," but they also have a positive impact on its strength and adhesive qualities.

One characteristic that sets these methods apart is their ability to reflect sunlight, which virtually eliminates solar heat. Due to the lack of asbestos in the composition, sealants can be used for internal work as well as roof repairs and drain installation.

The use of bitumen sealant

Sealants are used in a very wide range of applications. This is the primary and most crucial component that hardens roofs and makes them leak-proof. The bitumen composition facilitates the compacting of joints between sheet roofing components and the sealing of joints with cornices, gables, and additional profiles.

A variety of roof designs, such as stairs, antennas, snow retainers, and coverings for roof joints and ventilation pipes, are frequently coated in sealants. The following materials can be used to repair flat roofs and provide shelter from roof rain:

  • corrugated board;
  • metal tiles;
  • Shifer.

Bituminous compounds are frequently used to install rolled waterproofing, which isolates structures in contact with the ground and water (such as concrete foundation blocks and wooden and metal fence columns). This will shield the products from deterioration, corrosion, and destruction. Bitumen sealants can be used to make a sealed water supply, fix old containers submerged in water, and repair residential sewage pipes. Additionally, funds are utilized for chip sealing, road surface repairs, car cards, and strengthening other car components.

Where it is impossible to use bitumen sealant

In addition to their drawbacks, bitumen sealants themselves have usage restrictions. "Contraindications" result from a material’s unique viscosity and maximum operating temperature. For instance, bitumen compositions are not used to seal the joints in chimneys because the temperatures there rise to levels that the sealant cannot tolerate. Ignoring this rule will result in the system failing completely in the winter and moisture seeping into the house.

When sealants are applied without additional priming, they perform poorly on porous materials. This is primarily about foam concrete, or aerated concrete. However, the bitumen composition won’t be absorbed into the base after two to three layers of primer have been applied, making it usable.

An additional limitation in the application pertains to the coating, which is currently in place. As a result, bitumen sealants lose the manufacturer-declared clutch strength and do not adhere well to paint and varnishes. Rubber is the only composition that can be used on vibrating surfaces without rapidly collapsing.

The majority of sealants advise against applying a layer that is too thick since it won’t dry properly and provide excellent moisture protection. As a result, it is advised to apply any kind of bitumen-based sealant in layers, drying each layer completely between coats.

It’s easy to find a bitumen sealant in a construction store because there are many options available. Still, not all of the quality funds are on this list. The following is a list of sealants that are safe to purchase for a variety of tasks:

  1. Makroflex BA-141 ("Macrophlex BA-141"). Roofing sealant in tubes, not containing asbestos, easy to use, waterproof. It has excellent adhesion to wood, insulating materials, concrete, plastic, metal, can be used at low temperatures. Suitable for the installation and repair of roofs, greenhouses, foundations, chimneys, drainage systems.
  2. "Technonikol 42". Sealant bitumen-polymer, one-component agent for hot use. It is distinguished by high elasticity, the lack of shrinkage, suitable for road work (for waterproofing seams), sealing the area near the rails, sanitation of temperature cracks.
  3. "Moment of Herment". It has a high degree of adhesion to plastic, metal, concrete, bitumen coatings. Can be used at low temperatures, on wet bases, resistant to UV radiation. Most often used for the repair of roofs and chimneys.

  1. "Novomast BP-G". A whole series of sealants is available under this brand: BP-G25T-for hot climatic zones, BP-G35S-moderate climate, BP-G50Sh-moderate and northern zones, 65T-with high penetrating ability.
  2. "Izhora". It is used to seal deformation seams at airfields, against cracks on road surfaces, for the arrangement of drainage systems of bridges. Is a homogeneous black mass that is applied hot.
  3. Penosil Bitum Sealant. Widely used to eliminate roof leaks, sealing seams, seals of joints. Melts at +100 degrees. Implemented complete with a gun.

Bitumen-based sealants are adaptable and trustworthy options for a variety of sealing requirements. Their exceptional qualities, like superior adherence, longevity, and water resistance, make them perfect for a wide range of uses, from building roads and roofs to waterproofing foundations and basements. These sealants create a flexible, robust bond that is resistant to both heavy traffic and inclement weather.

Bitumen-based sealants come in a variety of forms, each intended for a particular application. Cold-applied sealants are handy and simple to use, making them ideal for little repairs or projects. In contrast, hot-applied sealants provide better bonding strength and work well in large-scale applications. Emulsion-based sealants offer a greener solution that preserves high performance while having less of an adverse effect on the environment.

The particular needs of your project should be taken into account when selecting a bitumen-based sealant. Your decision should be guided by elements like the type of stress the sealed area will be subjected to, the surface material, and the surrounding conditions. The longevity and efficacy of the sealant are also dependent on proper application, so it’s critical to follow the manufacturer’s instructions and properly prepare the surface.

All things considered, bitumen-based sealants are a solid option for a range of sealing jobs. They can meet the demands of both residential and commercial projects thanks to their robust properties and adaptability. You can choose wisely and safeguard your structures for many years to come by being aware of the various kinds and how they are used.

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Daria Yakovlev

Interior designer, author of online color design courses. I will help you create a harmonious interior using color.

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