What is LKM and their classification

Greetings from the Paints and Paintwork Materials Guide! We will investigate the categorization of liquid coating materials, or LKM, in this article. The term "LKM" describes a wide range of liquid coatings that are used to decorate, protect, or both on surfaces.

Anyone working in painting or surface finishing needs to be aware of how LKMs are classified. These divisions assist users in selecting the appropriate coating type for particular applications, guaranteeing maximum longevity and performance.

LKMs can be categorized according to a number of criteria, such as their makeup, mode of application, and intended purpose. Based on the kind of binder used in the coating, there is one typical classification. The parts of the LKM called binders are responsible for holding the pigment particles together and attaching them to the surface.

Their drying mechanism is a crucial classification criterion for LKMs. While some coatings cure through chemical reactions like cross-linking or polymerization, others dry through solvent evaporation. Achieving the desired finish and applying the product correctly require an understanding of the drying mechanism.

LKM – what is it?

The formation of the upper layers requires the use of enamel and paints, which must meet certain standards for aesthetic appeal and durability.

A mixture of liquid components is referred to as "paintwork," and the film that results from intricate chemical and physical reactions is known as "paint coating." We refer to the painted base as a substrate.

The purpose of the materials

  1. Protection of processed structures from adverse environmental impact.
  2. Giving the surface of the desired decorative effect .

Structure and layers

LKM creates a multi-layered, intricate structure. Among them are:

  1. Primer. Is the basis of the coating and is needed to obtain the required adhesion. This layer protects the material from negative influences and aggressive environments, including alkalis, which are released by concrete structures, or plasticizers present in plastic products.
  2. Functional (intermediate layer). It is necessary to enhance the protective functions of the previous coating and hiding bumps. Makes the coating resistant to mechanical loads and improves parameters such as reflective, suspension of diffusion, etc.D.
  3. The outer layer. He plays a key role in facing, protecting the surface from atmospheric precipitation, ultraviolet radiation, damp, chemicals and solvents. Gives the subject the required decorative qualities.

The total thickness of the structure is at least 1000 microns, or 1 mm.

Classification of paints and varnishes

Several factors set LKM apart, including:

  1. View and purpose.
  2. The specifics of binding additives.
  3. Optical characteristics.
  4. Reflective parameters.
  5. Type of the finish coating.

Types of colors

The material of the treated surface is taken into consideration when selecting paint.

  • Series for wood extend the life of the structures, allowing you to form an even fire -resistant layer.
  • For finishing work, oil or alkyd mixtures are used indoors. The former are in demand when facing flooring, walls and ceilings, and the latter for processing furniture, door and window structures.
  • The next type of LKM is for metal. They are developed in order to protect the material from corrosive processes under the influence of air and moisture.
  • Polyurethane options are suitable for staining on the street, and for internal work – a series based on natural oils.
  • If a plastic structure is painted, the key task of this procedure is to restore the initial type of product. The composition should not contain substances that can damage the structure of plastic (for example, solvents).
  • Decorative objects made of natural stone are painted with paint and varnish materials based on latex and acrylic particles.
  • Brick can be painted with mixtures based on acrylic, polysiloxan and polyvinyl acetate.
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Types of connecting components

The binder additive is essential to all LKM. High-molecular natural or inorganic compounds are used most of the time.

Out of all the products available on the market, water-dispersion mixtures are the most in demand. This is because of their adaptability and ability to use both internal and external labor. These paints dry quickly, are well suited for use in water, and do not release any harmful substances when applied.

Options for flying smoke are distinguished by their quick drying times and strong adherence to brick and concrete surfaces. They do, however, contain a solvent that is harmful to human health.

Silicon-based materials are used to create organo-mineral LKMs. Another class of materials, called organosilicates, has emerged as a result of current developments in the industry. These materials are composed of two components. After being pre-mixed, substances are applied to the surface.

The completed coating has a 30-year service life. These substances differ in their fire hazard and are poisonous.

Oil-based paints are the conventional kind. Vegetable oils provide olifs, which are added as binding agents.

Optical properties

The LCMs’ parameters state that they are both transparent and opaque. First, there are decorative varnishes; second, pigmentation mixtures with matching shade and texture.

The ability to reflect light

The degree of mirror sheen in various types of existing colors varies. Their gloss levels range from glossy to medium-gloss, matte to deeply matte, depending on their capacity to reflect light.

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By the nature of the surface

Two different types of colors with distinct surface qualities are used to stain structures. Among them are:

  1. Smooth types.
  2. Textured varieties (rough).

The danger of paints and varnishes

Certain material types exhibit explosive properties and rapid ignition, such as enamel, solvents, and varnishes. Water-dispersion and water-soluble options are the exception. It is not advised to keep a lot of paint at home.

Alcohols and ethers are examples of organic volatile substances found in LKM. They have the potential to cause allergic reactions and severe poisoning if they get inside of a human. Styrene, methylbenzole, and several other chemicals are potent carcinogens.

The gastrointestinal system, respiratory system, and skin are the three entry points for toxic additives found in LKM. Couples that enter the lungs through the air present the biggest risk.

The volatility of paints determines how strong their negative effects are. This feature shows how polluted the interior area is at the moment.

Many solvents pose a risk to one’s health. They cause increased excitement even at low concentrations, and at high enough doses they can lead to severe poisoning, headaches, nausea, and vomiting.

The eyes’ and upper respiratory tracts’ mucous membranes are impacted by acetone, gasoline, and all types of alcohol. They may also cause skin inflammation and allergic reactions.

The components of the paintwork

Contemporary LKM brands are made up of hundreds of distinct parts. Among them are:

  1. Pigments.
  2. Plasticizers and Film Educators.
  3. Dilutors.
  4. Solvents.
  5. Hardeners.
  6. Antioxidants and other targeted additives.

The properties and parameters of the final coating are influenced by these chemical components.


These substances’ primary function is to form a thick layer on the processed material’s surface. By joining pigment particles together, they shield the structure from damaging environmental effects.

The non-religious portion of the LKM is utilized as a binder component by adding plasticizers and sequestics while adhering to the standards of Dean 55 945.

A number of factors determine the film’s quality:

  1. Viscosity.
  2. Surface tension.
  3. Concentration of volatile and non -volatile compounds.
  4. Content of gels and microgels.
  5. The sizes of particles.

The strength characteristics and longevity of the finish coating are impacted by these indicators.

Both artificial and natural Olifs are included in the list of film forms. Although synthetic analogs are less expensive than natural ones, they pose a greater risk to human health.

Coloring pigments

These are unique colored powders that form a homogenous layer on the surface despite nearly dissolving in the dispersion media (water, film formers, and organic compositions). More than 500,000 different kinds of pigments are produced under industrial conditions. They vary in terms of the finish layer’s color (tint), resistance to adverse environmental effects, and deformation and strength characteristics.

For instance, painting soot causes corrosion, but aluminum powder stops rust from appearing on steel products.

Different kinds of these additives are identified based on their origin:

  1. Natural (ocher, chalk, Siena, brown umbra).
  2. Synthetic and metal (copper powder, aluminum and zinc powder, etc.D.). This category includes substances of organic and inorganic origin.

The following are some significant characteristics shared by all pigment-based additives:

  1. Dispersion. The concept characterizes the subtlety of grinding. If the sizes of particles are larger than 0.2-10 μm, the finish layer of the film will become uneven and rough.
  2. Covering properties. Determine the ability of matter to block the shade of the substrate. The indicator depends on the volume of the components per 1 kV. m, which is enough to repaint the surface.
  3. Intensity. The property affects the quality of transmission by the substance of its shade.
  4. Oil intensity. Indicates the ability to hold binding additives on the surface. The property is determined by the specific surface of the particles and the degree of wettability.
  5. Density. The indicator depends on the crystalline structure of the pigment. The most severe substance is a lead sword with a density of 8600 kg/cube. m, and the easiest – azure (1800 kg/cube. m).
  6. Light resistance. Characterizes the ability of a substance to maintain the initial composition and optical parameters when interacting with light. Separate species are subjected to darkening in the light, while others lose color. The exact indicators of light resistance are determined by the chemical composition of the component, its content and type of binding additives.
  7. Toxicity. Many additives that are in the LCM are characterized by safety for the human body. However, there are toxic species that pose a threat to humans and the environment. These include compounds based on copper, arsenic and lead. Due to the increased hazard class, they must be applied in compliance with all the rules and recommendations of the manufacturer.

More than ten thousand variations and three hundred thousand ready-made recipes are available in the shade collection. Individual orders can be used to create the desired color.

With just white, basis "A" can be used for both personal use and creating pastel colors. "B" is appropriate for the production of compounds with medium saturation because it contains a small amount of white pigment in the enamel. The "C" basis is required to achieve intense colors because it lacks a white component. Certain tools are used to apply tinting.

Certain substances can mimic the appearance of gold, platinum, silver, steel, or bronze. Metal pigments are made as powders in specialized mills where they go through a grinding cycle. Their hiding place is indicated by 3–4 g/sq. m.


These components are made from organic raw materials and have a powdery consistency. They are soluble in water, alcohol, and certain other substances. Given that dyes come from both natural and synthetic sources. The latter are made of coloring ingredients that can be identified by specific plant or animal species, while the former are made of coal resin.

These dyes are in the highest demand:

  1. Bright red fuchsin.
  2. Violet-color alizarin.
  3. Red-pink.
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Technological additives that speed up and ease the processes of wetting the substrate, dispersing the pigment, and removing surface flaws. Additionally, they guarantee that colors will solidify during the manufacturing, shipping, storing, and finishing layer formation processes. Such components have a concentration in the composition of 0.02… 3-5%.

Colorants and collars

Are extremely concentrated tinting compounds made from a combination of other materials, glycols, pigments, and surface-active additives. produced without the use of binding additives and with inclusion. utilized to alter the surface’s color. The percentage of colorants in the LKM varies between 1 and 10%, depending on the degree of shading and tinting.

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These finely divided materials are mixed into the paint separately from the solvent. You can get the ideal color or effect with their assistance. Toners come in various varieties that impart colors and visual effects to paint. Different options simulate a metallic coating, a glowing sheen, or an antique appearance.

Solvents and diluents

Multicomponent compounds based on alcohols, ethers, ketones, and volatile hydrocarbons fall under the category of solvents. They are essential for optimizing a film-forming additive so that it can be used later. To change the paintwork compositions’ viscosity, solvents are required.

The synthesis of acetone, butylcetate, or ethylacetate, which occurs during the distillation of oil products, coal resin, and various other substances, is typically the cause of the production of organic components. These solvents are the most widely used ones:

  1. Cleaned kerosene.
  2. Turpentine.
  3. Xylol.

The names of these substances are listed on paint labels. Solvents that meet the requirements of GOST 3134 are considered safe.

The dilutors are composed of one or more particles that give film formers the best viscosity without dissolving them.

Lighten paint

The ingredients are added to lower the material’s viscosity and evaporate during drying. The composition is typically supplemented with a mixture known as P-60 (ethyl alcoholsolv) and P-5 (composition consisting of butylacetate, xylol, and acetone).


For LCMs that use thermoreactive resins as the filmmaker, additives are required. By sewing together these constituents, they are able to create a three-dimensional structure. You can remove the smoothness and solubility of liquid polymers by transferring them into a firm state with the aid of hardeners.


Similar to pigmenting agents, these additives consist of finely divided mineral-based powders that essentially do not dissolve in paint compositions. Although they don’t have any coloring qualities, they can lighten the coating’s hue. Fillers can enhance the coating’s painting, technical, and functional qualities while using less of the primary material. They also increase the final layer’s resistance to adverse environmental effects.

Other additives

Together with the previously listed elements, they round out the LKM’s composition by adding:

  1. Antioxidants.
  2. Reoological and thicksotropic additives.
  3. Biocides.
  4. Colescents.
  5. Thickeners.

The process of drying out of the LKM

The paint gains several significant qualities during the drying process. There are a number of considerations to make when selecting technology:

  1. Type of painted product.
  2. Type of LKM.

There are various techniques for applying paint and allowing it to dry further. When there are no drying time constraints, the natural method is employed.

When the temperature is between +12 and +20 °C and the relative humidity is up to 65%, cold drying is produced. The process’s precise duration is determined by the outside temperature, airflow, and UV radiation. Increased air exchange speeds up the drying process.

Industrial settings frequently employ hot drying since it yields high-quality coatings and improves process efficiency.

Properties of paintwork and coatings

Materials’ physico-chemical properties include their viscosity, hingedness, density, drying, and film-forming ability. The composition’s component ratios are determined by their chemical properties. The following indicators of staining convenience are provided by the painting and technical properties:

  1. Drainage.
  2. Overflow.
  3. Approachment.
  4. Density.

Requirements for the quality of LKM

Several regulatory acts specify the quality standards for materials. They are determined by multiple factors:

  1. Viscosity. The indicator is measured using viscisimeters. The qualitative composition has an optimal consistency, which corresponds to the conditions for the use of LKM and does not create discomfort in the distribution.
  2. Dispersion. Determined by the largest inclusions. The smaller the components, the better the paint is distributed and below its consumption.
  3. Covering properties. Requirements are specified in GOST 8784, ISO 6504 and ISO 2814.

Compatibility of paints and varnishes

The compatibility of paints is described in detail in the normative acts of ISO 12944-5, taking into consideration the paints’ capacity to retain their properties without exhibiting defects. Use the LKM compatibility table to thoroughly examine these parameters prior to staining the surface.

Type of applied composition A primer layer
Ak As Ay VG Vl Gf Kf Ml Ms Mch Pf Ur
Alkid-acrylic (AS) + + + + + +
Alkid-stirol (MS) + + + + + +
Vinyl chloride (XC) + + + + +
Oil (ma) + + + + +
Epoxy (EP) + + + + + +
Melamine (ml) + + + + + + + +
Polyurethane (UR) + + + + +
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In this piece, we delve deeper into the realm of paint by examining the idea of lacquer coating materials, or LKM. Anyone working with paints and coatings, whether for commercial, automotive, or residential use, needs to understand LKM. We’ll dissect the LKM classification, illuminating its various varieties, characteristics, and uses. By the time it’s all through, readers will know exactly what LKM is and how it fits into the larger scheme of paint and paintwork supplies, giving them the ability to choose wisely for their projects.

Consumables for the preparation of surfaces

First, a primer solution is distributed as part of the preliminary work. This mixture has good adhesive qualities and forms a uniform, opaque or transparent layer. The GOST P 51693/LCM requires that the qualities of LCM be improved. The primer aids in improving the material’s density and ensuring that paint, plaster, putty, and glue for wallpaper and other compositions are distributed evenly.

Primer types include deep penetration, impregnation, antiseptic (for wood processing), and anti-corrosion (for metal products).

Putty is the next consumable needed to prepare the surface. The solution is made with a pastoral or liquid consistency, which makes it possible to smooth out surface imperfections and create an even layer.

During the preparatory stage, universes and pore filler are supposed to be used to remove minor cracks, potholes, and scratches.

Materials of the main layer

It is composed of varnishes derived from shellac, a unique tarry material that solidifies into a thick layer with strong adhesive qualities.

The varnish does not contain pigments; however, it may contain hardeners, plasticizers, and a variety of other ingredients that improve the coating’s quality.

Oil and resin varnishes or alcohol varnishes, which are based on artificial polymer particles dissolved in alcohol, are applied to the outermost layer. Paints and enamels have the highest demand of all LCMs for staining surfaces.

A variety of substances with a liquid or pasty consistency fall into the first category. Pigmentation varnishes are covered in the second group.

Marking paints and varnishes

Paints are marked specifically for easy classification. It contains multiple alphabetic-range reductions that give rise to the associated indicators.

Based on the film former’s composition, the following classifications are differentiated:

  1. Hell is polyamides.
  2. AS – Solimers polyacryla.
  3. AU-alkyd-uretan components.
  4. BT – bitumen and bee.
  5. KK – rosin.
  6. KP – digging.
  7. CC – rubber.
  8. Ma – vegetable oils.
  9. Ml – melamine.

Certain properties between the sign groups might be clarified:

  1. B – without volatile solvents.
  2. B – compositions that dissolve in water.
  3. VD-LKM from the water-dispersion group.
  4. P – powder and others.

The series’ goal and operating conditions are indicated by the numbers.

Other principles unrelated to their production or purpose details can be used to identify mixes made by foreign manufacturers.

Methods for applying LKM

To distribute LKM, various devices and technologies are employed. The kind of stained surface, its dimensions, and the specifications for the finish layer’s qualities or attributes are taken into consideration when choosing the best technique.

One common technique for applying paints and varnishes is pneumatic spraying. It is carried out both with and without the mixture’s initial heating step. Without any solvents added to its composition, the material gets more viscous when heated.

Submerging the subject into the coloring composition is the second widely used technique. The subject’s dimensions and geometric shape impose limitations on the technology. In industrial settings, it’s frequently used to stain brown or epaulets.

When staining flat surfaces, one practices the finish by rolling (rolled).

LKM Classification
LKM stands for "Liquid Coating Materials," which are categorized based on their composition and application method.

Anyone working in painting and finishing needs to understand lacquer coating materials. This article has illuminated the various aspects of paintwork materials by delving into the principles of LKM and their categorization.

First, we defined LKM and discussed how it is used as a coating on different surfaces, both decorative and protective. Regardless of the material—wood, metal, or plastic—LKM improves functionality, durability, and aesthetics.

We then looked at how LKM were categorized according to their makeup and usage techniques. There are many options available, each with special qualities and advantages, ranging from solvent-based to water-based and from spray to brush application.

We also talked about how crucial it is to take durability, application ease, and environmental impact into account when choosing the right kind of LKM for a given project. Making well-informed decisions minimizes negative effects and guarantees the best outcomes.

In conclusion, learning about LKM offers important insights into the paint and coatings industry. Through comprehension of their categorization and characteristics, people can effectively navigate the multitude of choices accessible, ultimately attaining superior finishes with increased resilience and visual appeal.

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Daniel Sedov

Master finish with 20 years of experience. I know everything about painting walls, ceilings, facades. I will gladly help you make your home beautiful and cozy.NoEDIT]

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