What glue is used in the manufacture of glued timber

Glulam, another name for glue-bonded lumber, is a very strong and adaptable material that is frequently used in woodworking and construction. Multiple layers of wood are fused together to create this engineered wood product, which is a sturdy, stable, and aesthetically pleasing material. The strength and durability of glued timber structures are largely dependent on the glue selection.

The type of glue used in the production of glued timber needs to adhere to certain specifications. It must offer a solid bond that is resistant to a range of environmental factors, such as moisture, temperature changes, and mechanical strains. Furthermore, to protect the health and safety of builders and end users, the glue must be non-toxic and safe to use as well as in the final product.

Polyurethane, phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde (PRF), and melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) adhesives are the most widely utilized glues in the production of glued timber. These glues all have distinct qualities that enable them to be used in various contexts. Because of their flexibility and resistance to water, polyurethane adhesives are well-suited for outdoor applications. While PRF adhesives offer exceptional durability and resistance to harsh environmental conditions, MUF adhesives offer a good balance between performance and cost.

Selecting the appropriate glue is crucial for the functionality and longevity of glued wood. Manufacturers have to take into account things like the adhesive’s unique properties, the timber’s intended use, and exposure to the environment. Manufacturers can guarantee that glued timber remains a dependable and sustainable building material for a variety of construction projects by choosing the right glue.

Type of Glue Description
Urea-Formaldehyde Resin A commonly used adhesive known for its strong bonding and cost-effectiveness. It is ideal for indoor applications where moisture resistance is not a priority.
Melamine-Urea-Formaldehyde Resin An improved version of urea-formaldehyde resin with better water resistance, making it suitable for environments with higher humidity.
Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin A durable adhesive offering excellent water resistance and strength, often used for exterior applications and in harsh conditions.
Polyurethane Glue A versatile and waterproof adhesive known for its strong bond and flexibility, suitable for both indoor and outdoor use.

Features of the production of glued timber

This kind of beam is typically composed of coniferous wood, primarily pine. First, the raw materials (round logs) are prepared by removing the bark, humping the log, and then sawing it. Typically, radially three boards (lamellas) are obtained. Large boards are received using a unique method that accounts for the annual rings’ angle of inclination, relieving undue stress and accelerating the drying process of the wood. Moreover, the lamella is exposed to the following procedures for the last drying:

  • high temperatures processing;
  • pressure of pressure;
  • centrifugation.

The lamellas are then put through another round of machine processing to get their ideal shape and smoothness before being glued under a press at +200 degrees. Special compositions are used for gluing, and they work by forcing their way into the wood’s deepest pores, providing a high margin of safety. The material is strictly cut to create elements of the desired size once the glue has fully set.

Although glued beams are resistant to damage and can last for decades, their quality may vary. It’s important to consider the type and shape of the structure when ordering one made of this kind of material. Certain companies produce bars that are only 20–40 cm in size, which detracts from their aesthetic appeal. It works best when the lamella is applied every ten to fifteen meters during manufacture.

Types of adhesive systems for the manufacture of timber

Not every adhesive substance can be used in the manufacturing of wood. Some of them are loaded with toxins and other dangerous chemicals. Consequently, glued beams made of environmentally friendly materials may only be taken into consideration when using the proper adhesives and strictly adhering to the GOST and SanPins methods of creation. Most adhesives don’t usually release volatile compounds after hardening, but some have a protracted final polymerization in the wood’s deep layers. Formaldehyde, the most hazardous ingredient in these funds, makes them unfit for use in beam gluing.

In order to choose phenol-formaldehyde with adhesive compounds, several security classes are distinguished: E1, E2, and E3. The manufacturer should test each glue before designating the corresponding class on the packaging (the safest being E1).

Currently, a variety of adhesive types are employed in the manufacturing of construction materials:

  1. Polymer-isoaco mixtures, or EPI. Do not include formaldehyde, as well as other harmful substances (for example, urea). Allow you to work with a timber at temperatures from +5 degrees, do not respond to high humidity, but are expensive.
  2. Polyurethane adhesives. They quickly harden with hot gluing, have excellent technical characteristics, are more often realized in a single -component form. After complete curing, hazardous substances are not distinguished, although in the process this is possible. Polyurethane -based adhesives are also expensive.
  3. Melamin adhesives. Based on formaldehyde, but have the highest degree of adhesion. Can boast of frost resistance, moisture resistance, after drying become transparent. Such funds are widely used in Europe, since after polymerization they cease to distinguish harmful evaporation, moreover, they are very economical.
  4. Resorcinic adhesives. As they stain, they become dark. Complex in work, since gluing the beam is permissible only in the open air. In Russia, Europe, such funds are infrequently used, they are more popular in America.

Other compounds that cannot guarantee a dependable clutch of wood are not used in the production of glued beams. PVA and carpentry adhesives are therefore inappropriate for this use. Frequently, the type of glue is not the deciding factor; injury to the body results in a breach of the bar production technology. For instance, if the temperature is too low or the glue is not fully polymerized during the gluing process, long-term toxin release will occur.

Comparative table of the properties and prices of adhesives

Different products used in the production of beams may have different specs and features. The key elements of the three most well-liked compositions are listed below.

The name of the glue External signs Hardener Consumption, kg/kV. m Average cost, rub.
Polyurethane Liquid, light brown No 0.15-0.25 480
Melamine Liquid, milk-white Eat 0.3-0.45 470
EPI Liquid, transparent Eat 0.25-0.4 190

The table indicates that the only compounds offered for sale as one-component adhesives are polyurethane compounds. Before being used, the remaining funds must be mixed with a hardener because they are realized in a two-sting form.

The kind of glue used in the production of glued timber is essential to guaranteeing its strength, durability, and resistance to environmental influences. Strong bonding, water resistance, and temperature tolerance are the main reasons why premium adhesives like polyurethane, phenol-resorcinol, and melamine-urea-formaldehyde are used. These glues are selected not only for their adhesive qualities but also for their wood-compatibility and safety, guaranteeing a dependable and durable finished product.

The danger of glue with formaldehyde

Formaldehyde (phenol-formaldehyde) is a strong-smelling gas. In medicine, it is referred to as a toxic substance and is associated with strong allergies and carcinogens. Additionally, some scientists contend that the material has mutagenic qualities and may have detrimental effects on the user as well as any future children. It has been established that formaldehyde is linked to the growth of tumors in the lungs and other respiratory system organs, as well as bronchial asthma.

It is crucial to avoid residing in a home constructed with subpar glued beams because living there can lead to poisoning and the development of serious consequences for humans. Affordable materials have an active formaldehyde release, which can be attributed to the low cost of inferior glue. The straightforward conclusion is this: never skimp on quality when purchasing a beam, and always carefully review product certificates.

The type of glue used in the production of glued timber is a crucial factor in determining the end product’s durability and quality. Adhesives come in a variety of forms, each with special qualities and advantages that fit certain manufacturing needs. The most popular kinds are adhesives made of polyurethane, phenol-resorcinol formaldehyde, and melamine-urea-formaldehyde. These glues ensure the structural integrity of the wood by offering strong, long-lasting bonds that can withstand environmental stresses.

Adhesives based on phenol-resorcinol formaldehyde are well-known for their remarkable durability and water resistance, which makes them perfect for outdoor applications and structural elements. Despite their strength, melamine-urea-formaldehyde adhesives are more frequently used in interior applications because of their lower cost and sufficient moisture resistance. Both interior and external applications can benefit from the flexibility and powerful bonding properties of polyurethane adhesives. They are a well-liked option in contemporary timber manufacturing due to their performance and versatility.

Manufacturers have to take into account a number of factors, including production processes, load-bearing requirements, and environmental exposure, when choosing the right adhesive. Making the proper decision guarantees that the glued timber will function effectively in a variety of settings, offering a dependable and durable building material. Comprehending the characteristics and uses of every adhesive variety facilitates decision-making, resulting in timber products of superior quality and greater sustainability.

In conclusion, the adhesives utilized in the production of glued timber are critical to the outcome of long-lasting, high-quality goods. Adhesives with phenol-resorcinol, melamine-urea-formaldehyde, and polyurethane each have unique benefits that meet various requirements and uses. Manufacturers can guarantee that their timber products meet the highest standards of performance and longevity by carefully selecting the right glue.

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