How to build a monolithic house made of expanded clay concrete

Constructing a house is a big and fulfilling project. Expanded clay concrete monolithic homes are a long-lasting, economical, and energy-efficient alternative to other building techniques. This technique is a great option for contemporary homes since it combines the strength of monolithic construction with the insulating qualities of expanded clay concrete.

Expanded clay concrete is a strong, lightweight material that offers superior soundproofing and thermal insulation. It is made of concrete mixed with tiny, porous clay pellets that combine to form a sturdy, long-lasting structure. This combination not only makes the house more durable but also lowers noise levels and keeps interior temperatures consistent, making for a more comfortable living space.

Pouring concrete into a formwork creates a continuous, seamless structure that is the process of building a monolithic house. With this method, joints—which are frequently weak spots in conventional construction—are not necessary. Because of this, monolithic homes are renowned for their exceptional strength and resilience to environmental factors like earthquakes and severe weather.

When thinking about building a monolithic house out of expanded clay concrete, it’s critical to comprehend the essential processes. Every stage, from site preparation and formwork setup to mixing and pouring expanded clay concrete, calls for meticulous planning and execution. Building a home that is not only durable and strong but also energy-efficient and ecologically friendly is possible if you take the proper approach.

Step Description
1. Design Draw up the house plan and obtain necessary permits.
2. Foundation Excavate and lay a strong concrete foundation.
3. Formwork Set up formwork to shape the concrete walls.
4. Mixing Mix expanded clay concrete for wall construction.
5. Pouring Pour the concrete mix into the formwork.
6. Curing Allow the concrete to cure and harden properly.
7. Insulation Apply insulation to improve energy efficiency.
8. Finishing Finish walls with plaster, paint, or other materials.

The scope of expanded clay concrete

In low-rise construction, monolithic expanded clay concrete is frequently utilized throughout the entire project lifecycle, from foundation pouring to installing roof ceilings. The substance is most widely used in Scandinavia, Germany, and the Netherlands, where it accounts for 40% of private development; in the CIS, this percentage is between 10% and 15%.

Crucial! Expanded clay concrete is becoming more and more in demand globally, both from professionals and regular consumers.

The material works well for both building construction and pre-fabricated building insulation. Ceramzitton blocks can be used without additional facade cladding and have an attractive and expressive appearance.

For construction, the best expanded clay concrete is as follows:

  • residential buildings (up to three floors);
  • fences, fences;
  • pantries, leaks;
  • Saraev;
  • garages;
  • bath;
  • barn, warehouses;
  • industrial buildings of low number of storeys.

Characteristics of the material

The material is composed of an astringent—cement—as well as plasticizers, sand, expanded clay, modifying additives, and water to create a dry mixture. In the event that the solution is ready to fill monolithic structures, expanded clay can completely replace the sand.

The latter is achieved by firing specific types of clay. The lumps foam during the heating process, and a high-porous material with the right strength and many other advantageous properties is created after solidification.

Sand-infused expanded clay concrete proves to be more dense and more appropriate for filling foundations and constructing walls. Such a material has a 40–80 kg/cm² compression strength and a 0.25-0.45 W/m*K* thermal conductivity coefficient.

Crucial! In order to decrease wall thickness and enhance technical parameters, a significant amount of filler (fraction 1-2 cm) is added to the raw material composition. This reduces heat loss and makes expanded clay concrete more porous.

It is advised to use expanded clay with walls that are thinner and have a bulk density of 250–350 kg/m³ when constructing energy-efficient structures. Unfortunately, because many plants produce expanded clay with a bulk density of 400–500 kg/m³, it is not always possible to find such material in the construction market.

The material that has been specified will have a higher thermal conductivity and a lower capacity for heat-saving design. In the event that superior raw materials are unobtainable, expanded clay fractions measuring 20–40 mm and having a bulk density of up to 600 kg/m³ can be used. In this instance, monolithic expanded clay concrete will have a thermal conductivity of 0.11-0.15 W/m*K*.

Additional features of expanded clay concrete include:

  • high vapor permeability (0.13-0.20 mg/m*h*PA);
  • low water absorption (1-1.5%);
  • Frost resistance (50-200 cycles).

The ability of expanded clay to allow water to pass through its thickness is one of its unique characteristics. The material completely drains after a brief period of time.

Crucial! For the layout of bathrooms, floors on soil, basements, and other wet rooms, coarse-grained expanded clay concrete is appropriate (subject to additional waterproofing).

Types of expanded clay concrete

The following categories apply to monolithic expanded clay concrete, based on its strength, use, and thermal conductivity:

  1. Structural. Suitable for building load -bearing walls, ceilings. Mark strength-M100-M300, density-1500-1800 kg/m³, thermal conductivity 0.5-0.7 W/(M*C).
  2. Structural-heat-insulating. It is used to create interior partitions, fences and small structures that do not experience significant loads. Straight brand-M50 m75, density-900-1200 kg/m³, thermal conductivity-less than 0.5 W/(m*s).
  3. Thermal insulation. Suitable for insulation and soundproofing of buildings, it is not used in construction (exception is a combination with a reinforced concrete frame). Density-up to 500 kg/m³, thermal conductivity-from 0.1-0.2 W/(m*C).

Advantages and disadvantages

Monolithic expanded clay concrete is a great material for homes and other buildings, and it has a lot of benefits for private development.

  1. Universality. Expanded clay concrete is suitable for all stages of construction. With it, you can pour a reinforced foundation, equip the screed, make walls and ceilings.
  2. Moderate mass. Thanks to a special composition, the material is an order of magnitude lighter than traditional heavy concrete. This property allows you to reduce the load on the foundation, to accelerate and reduce the cost of the construction process, for which it is not necessary to use special equipment. For such buildings, an inexpensive belt -type foundation is suitable.
  3. Optimal heat and noise insulation. Buildings from monolithic expanded clay concrete can not be insulated additionally, they themselves will give the desired level of heat saving. As a result, savings on heating, as well as on heaters are noted.
  4. Convenience. The material can be prepared directly at the facility, or ordered in finished form at the factory. Pouring into the formwork occurs quickly, the walls are flat, high -quality. You can build a house made of expanded clay concrete with your own hands.
  5. Resistance to the action of negative factors. Keramzitton is not afraid of frosts, temperature differences, it is suitable even for the northern regions.
  6. High service life. The material serves up to 300 years (at the request of manufacturers).
  7. Environmental friendliness. Explorer is made of pure raw materials, it is completely safe and does not accumulate toxins, radiation, a fungus, mold do not settle on it. The combustibility of building materials is also close to zero.
  8. Lack of shrinkage. The material retains the form, volume during the entire operational period.

The primary drawback of expanded clay concrete is that it has a relatively low resistance to continuous exposure to water. It is therefore preferable to apply additional waterproofing compound treatment when constructing buildings and other structures that come into contact with moisture.

Crucial! Prior to beginning construction, the best combination of density and thermal insulation indicators should be considered when selecting a material. This is because an incorrect choice could result in an inadequately warm or unstable building.

If longevity, energy economy, and sound absorption are important considerations, building a monolithic home out of expanded clay concrete is a wise decision. In order to ensure a sturdy, well-assembled structure, this guide will take you step-by-step through the entire process, from laying the foundation to pouring and curing the concrete walls. You’ll discover the supplies required, detailed building methods, and useful advice to guarantee your house endures the ages and offers a cozy living space. This thorough guide will assist you in understanding every step of building with expanded clay concrete, regardless of whether you’re a do-it-yourself enthusiast or intend to hire professionals.

Features of construction

Certain key nuances are necessary in the technology of monolithic construction from expanded clay concrete. First and foremost, you must precisely select the component proportions. Here are some recommendations regarding this matter:

Mark of expanded clay concrete Cement, kg Sand, kg Expanded clay, kg
M150 10 32 50
M200 10 25 42
M250 10 19 34
M300 10 17 32
M400 10 eleven 24
M250 10 10 24

Selecting the appropriate components with the best qualities is equally important. The solution for the foundation should be made with extreme caution because this design can support the largest loads.

You can make the mixture by hand or place an order at the factory. If the second option is chosen, a space is ready in advance for an easy access to the machinery, and a long enough hose is purchased to supply the solution.

When making expanded clay concrete on its own, it is necessary to add additives to the mixture in order to boost density and strength as well as provide waterproofing and anti-controlled modifiers. To make independent work less complicated, it is preferable to purchase or rent a concrete mixer.

Stages of construction

Two technologies can be used to construct homes out of expanded clay concrete. In the first, buildings are constructed using completed blocks, and in the second, a liquid solution is poured into formwork to create a monolith.

Bricks arranged in a conventional manner to resemble walls. Although monolithic structures are more intricate, they enable you to improve the building’s quality features and produce long-lasting housing.

Work with the foundation

On soil that is both dense and immobile, a strip foundation can be installed. Indicators of poor bearing soil will require the foundation to be lowered below the freezing line.

Crucial! This design is poured using river sand, premium cement, and small-fractional gravel in place of some of the expanded clay.

The tasks will be completed in this order:

  1. Plan the contours of the house on the ground.
  2. Prepare a trench for pouring concrete, removing the remaining roots, branches, grass and thoroughly cleaning the pit.
  3. They form a pillow of sand and crushed stone, falling asleep in layers of 15 cm, trim with a vibrator or improvised ways.
  4. They put the reinforcement horizontally and verticals of the basement (the thickness and number of rods are counted according to special formulas, taking into account the number of storeys, the mass of the structure, the type of roof, the thickness of the walls).
  5. Leave pieces of reinforcement for further fastening the foundation with the walls and the whole box.
  6. The width of the foundation should be larger than the width of the walls by at least 10 cm.

The construction of the formwork

We need a formwork composed of bars, boards, chipboard, plywood, etc. to fill the foundation. First, the bars are anchored in the ground. They use self-tapping screws to fasten flat components that are thick enough to support the weight of the flooded, expanded clay concrete. If the formwork is not completed reliably and without cracks, the solution will seep through them.

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Removable formwork

The materials used to prepare this kind of formwork are typically 8–12 cm thick, moisture-resistant sheets. They are positioned in parallel pairs and secured with studs, clamps, or brackets.

If these fasteners are not available, you can use screws. The wood is additionally covered from the inside with a plastic film that does not absorb moisture at all to prevent it from getting wet.

Advice: You don’t need the film if you are using laminated materials.

Factory formwork

This kind of polystyrene foam formwork for pouring the foundation comes with reinforcing rods to strengthen the structure and hold the expanded clay concrete where it needs to be. Expanded clay concrete is poured inside after polistyle blocks are joined to form a single design. The entire structure’s ability to block heat is enhanced by non-removable formwork, but the cost is increased.

Preparation of the solution and filling the foundation

The dry components of the concrete mixer are first connected, and then specific additives are added. These are purchased from construction stores and used in accordance with the directions on the package. You can use regular liquid soap in the plasticizer role.

Expanded clay concrete is poured into the formwork directly on top of the constructed reinforcing cage after being diluted with water. Once they provide the basis for strength and beyond the shrinkage stage (at least 15 days, ideally 28 days).

Wall filling

The waterproofing of the basement is equipped with roofing material, coating, or film to create the load-bearing walls and partitions. Next, new formwork is constructed, either non-removable (made of brick or drywall) or removable (made of boards and shield material). Walls for walls are assembled based on a block designer’s concept and executed in their completed state.

A reinforcing cage is set up after the formwork work is finished. once the completed expanded clay concrete has been poured inside. Every layer of expanded clay concrete requires the formwork components to be moved. The application of layers of a reinforcing screed to the wall will help to better distribute the weight from the building’s roof.

Crucial! The level is always used to ensure that the work is completed accurately.

Crossing device

Wooden ceilings are one type of material that can be used in homes built of expanded clay concrete. However, since it won’t significantly increase the load on the foundation, this design is typically made of the same expanded clay concrete material as the walls. Concrete floors made of ceramic can only be deemed weaker than other materials, even though they will be more than sufficient for average private homes.

Types of floors

You have the option to select any of the three currently available floor types:

  • Lung. It is created from ready -made plates, so it is built very quickly. Disadvantages of light floors – high price, complex delivery and the need to use a crane for installation.
  • Monolithic. It can be mounted independently, it is cheaper, although it takes a lot of effort, time. We will have to build a formwork of lumber, make a reinforced frame of rods and corners, pour it with expanded clay concrete.
  • Collective monolithic. Ready -made hollow blocks and beams made of expanded clay concrete are used, which play the role of non -removable formwork and occupy a significant thickness of the overlap. The internal space is poured with a solution, as a result of which a single strong structure is obtained.

Expanded clay concrete has many benefits when building a monolithic home because it combines strength, durability, and superior thermal insulation. This building technique produces a strong, seamless structure that is resistant to many environmental stresses, making the result a long-lasting house that requires less upkeep. Expanded clay concrete is a material that strikes a balance between affordability and functionality.

The procedure entails filling formwork with a concrete and expanded clay aggregate mixture to create a continuous wall system without the use of individual bricks or blocks. This guarantees better insulation and fewer thermal bridges while also accelerating the construction process. As a result, your house will be more energy-efficient, keeping you cozy in the winter and cool in the summer while also drastically lowering your energy costs.

Expanded clay concrete is also an environmentally friendly option because it uses natural resources with little effect on the environment. Because of its lighter weight than conventional concrete, it is easier to handle while building and lessens the strain on foundations. Additionally, its ability to withstand fire and insulate sound improves the security and comfort of your home.

All things considered, building a monolithic home out of expanded clay concrete is a wise investment for people looking for a contemporary, effective, and sustainable residence. You can create a structure that not only satisfies your functional and aesthetic requirements but also endures over time and provides a secure and comfortable living space for many years to come with careful planning and execution.

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Daniel Sedov

Master finish with 20 years of experience. I know everything about painting walls, ceilings, facades. I will gladly help you make your home beautiful and cozy.NoEDIT]

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